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Органска хемија

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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #1 Topic: Органска хемија
    Posted: 09-Aug-2012 at 14:00
се загледав некои кулинарски видеа [1][2][3] и ето се сетив дека може и оваа тема да биде од корист пример како квалитетно да подмачкаш железо со органски соединенија [1] или зошто и како печурките се корисни по околината [1] впрочем прашање на време е колку и како ќе се вртиме кон органскиот пристап кој е и еколошки и биолошки, односно гарантира посигурна симбиоза помеѓу човекот и планетата земја...

што е до дефиниција попрегледна е оваа на српската википедија [1] отколку нашата [2] кај нас ја тераат органскава алхемиски, нејсе, битно има абер! ко за загревање добро е човек да ја изгледа серијата Kitchen Chemistry што се вртеше на дискавери [1] или да читне нешто за хемија во кујната [2][3] сепак лапни-голтни аудио-видео едукација е полезет работа та после kitchen chemistry би препорачал доку серијал ко EWAF [1][3] потоа јасно чоек се доедуцира ко што треба [1]

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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #2 Posted: 09-Aug-2012 at 15:36

Primitive Adhesives - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resin

Hide Glue - [1]
RG - [2]
Pine Tar - [1][2]
Birch Tar - [1]



Edited by Max - 09-Aug-2012 at 15:36
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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #3 Posted: 09-Aug-2012 at 16:00






Caoutchouc - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_rubber

Latex - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latex#Biology [1][2]

[1] Latex vs memory foam [2]

[1] - Балоните се произведени од 100% латекс и во потполност се биоразградиви - [2] - Balloon manufacturers will often state that a latex balloon is perfectly safe to release into the environment as it is made from a natural substance and will biodegrade over time. However a latex balloon can take up to a year to degrade if it lands in the sea and during this time it is possible for a marine animal to ingest the balloon and die from slow starvation if its digestive system is blocked



Edited by Max - 09-Aug-2012 at 16:01
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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #4 Posted: 09-Aug-2012 at 17:34


животинска маст - Tallow - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tallow

Uses for tallow:
1) Greasing a gun lock & wiping the gun
2) greasing the bore of a gun
3) waterproofing the pan on a flintlock in wet weather
4) Greasing the leather gun lock cover
5) Greasing Moccasins & other leather items to make water resistant [1][2]
6) Greasing patch material for a muzzle-loading rifle
7) Making tallow candles [1]
8) For grease lamps
9) For sealing the tops of bottles & other food containers
10) For dry skin
11) For face paint
12) For making fire with damp kindling
13) For greasing a bow stave
14) For Food
15) Making Soap



вика во итни случаи може и да се јаде, а кај нас то чварките секојдневен специјалитет, сепак на север е можеби единствен начин да се преживее ден [1][2]
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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #5 Posted: 09-Aug-2012 at 19:20
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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #6 Posted: 16-Aug-2012 at 01:01



Carbon, the common denominator in all living things. Not everything that has carbon is living, nor are all the areas studied in organic chemistry—the branch of chemistry devoted to the study of carbon and its compounds—always concerned with living things. Organic chemistry addresses an array of subjects as vast as the number of possible compounds that can be made by strings of carbon atoms. We can thank organic chemistry for much of what makes life easier in the modern age: fuel for cars, for instance, or the plastics found in many of the products used in an average day.

OC - How it works

Carbon is sixth element on the periodic table, the 14th most abundant element on Earth. In the human body, carbon is second only to oxygen in abundance, and accounts for 18% of the body's mass. Capable of combining in seemingly endless ways, carbon, along with hydrogen, is at the center of huge families of compounds. These are the hydrocarbons, present in deposits of fossil fuels: natural gas, petroleum, and coal.
...
There are two elements noted for their ability to form long strings of atoms and seemingly endless varieties of molecules: one is carbon, and the other is silicon, directly below it on the periodic table.

Just as carbon is at the center of a vast network of organic compounds, silicon holds the same function in the inorganic realm. It is found in virtually all types of rocks, except the calcium carbonates—which, as their name implies, contain carbon. In terms of known elemental mass, silicon is second only to oxygen in abundance on Earth. Silicon atoms are about one and a half times as large as those of carbon; thus not even silicon can compete with carbon's ability to form an almost limitless array of molecules in various shapes and sizes, and with various chemical properties.

Electronegativity

Carbon is further distinguished by its high value of electronegativity, the relative ability of an atom to attract valence electrons. To mention a few basic aspects of chemical bonding, developed at considerably greater length in the Chemical Bonding essay, if two atoms have an electric charge and thus are ions, they form strong ionic bonds. Ionic bonding occurs when a metal bonds with a nonmetal. The other principal type of bond is a covalent bond, in which two uncharged atoms share eight valence electrons. If the electronegativity values of the two elements involved are equal, then they share the electrons equally; but if one element has a higher electronegativity value, the electrons will be more drawn to that element.

The electronegativity of carbon is certainly not the highest on the periodic table. That distinction belongs to fluorine, with an electronegativity value of 4.0, which makes it the most reactive of all elements. Fluorine is at the head of Group 7, the halogens, all of which are highly reactive and most of which have high electronegativity values. If one ignores the noble gases, which are virtually unreactive and occupy the extreme right-hand side of the periodic table, electronegativity values are highest in the upper right-hand side of the table—the location of fluorine—and lowest in the lower left. In other words, the value increases with group or column number (again, leaving out the noble gases in Group 8), and decreases with period or row number.

With an electronegativity of 2.5, carbon ties with sulfur and iodine (a halogen) for sixth place, behind only fluorine; oxygen (3.5); nitrogen and chlorine (3.0); and bromine (2.8). Thus its electronegativity is high, without being too high. Fluorine is not likely to form the long chains for which is carbon is known, simply because its electronegativity is so high, it overpowers other elements with which it comes into contact. In addition, with four valence electrons, carbon is ideally suited to find other elements (or other carbon atoms) for forming covalent bonds according to the octet rule, whereby most elements bond so that they have eight valence electrons.

Carbon multiple bonds

Carbon—with its four valence electrons—happens to be tetravalent, or capable of bonding to four other atoms at once. It is not necessarily the case that an element has the ability to bond with as many other elements as it has valence electrons; in fact, this is rarely the case. Additionally, carbon is capable of forming not only a single bond, with one pair of shared valence electrons, but a double bond (two pairs) or even a triple bond (three pairs.)

Another special property of carbon is its ability to bond in long chains that constitute strings of carbons and other atoms. Furthermore, though sometimes carbon forms a typical molecule (for example, carbon dioxide, or CO 2, is just one carbon atom with two oxygens), it is also capable of forming "molecules" that are really not molecules in the way that the word is typically used in chemistry. Graphite, for instance, is just a series of "sheets" of carbon atoms bonded tightly in a hexagonal, or six-sided, pattern, while a diamond is simply a huge "molecule" composed of carbon atoms strung together by covalent bonds.



O RGANIC C HEMISTRY

Organic chemistry is the study of carbon, its compounds, and their properties. The only major carbon compounds considered inorganic are carbonates (for instance, calcium carbonate, alluded to above, which is one of the major forms of mineral on Earth) and oxides, such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. This leaves a huge array of compounds to be studied, as we shall see.

The term "organic" in everyday language connotes "living," but organic chemistry is involved with plenty of compounds not part of living organisms: petroleum, for instance, is an organic compound that ultimately comes from the decayed bodies of organisms that once were alive. It should be stressed that organic compounds do not have to be produced by living things, or even by things that once were alive; they can be produced artificially in a laboratory.

The breakthrough event in organic chemistry came in 1828, when German chemist Friedrich Wöhler (1800-1882) heated a sample of ammonium cyanate (NH 4 OCN) and converted it to urea (H 2 N-CO-NH 2 ). Ammonium cyanite is an inorganic material, whereas urea, a waste product in the urine of mammals, is an organic one. "Without benefit of a kidney, a bladder, or a Ammonium cyanate and urea are isomers: substances having the same formula, but possessing different chemical properties. Thus they have exactly the same numbers and proportions of atoms, yet these atoms are arranged in different ways. In urea, the carbon forms an organic chain, and in ammonium cyanate, it does not. Thus, to reduce the specifics of organic chemistry even further, this discipline can be said to constitute the study of carbon chains, and ways to rearrange them to create new substances.

http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3-Physics-Vol-1/Organic-Chemistry-How-it-works.html


ORGANIC CHEMISTRY - Real-life applications - http://www.scienceclarified.com/everyday/Real-Life-Chemistry-Vol-3-Physics-Vol-1/Organic-Chemistry-Real-life-applications.html - Key Terms

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/search/results/?q=carbon

But there are stars, and stars manufacture heavy elements from light elements. They take hydrogen in and fuse the atoms to become helium, and helium fuses to become carbon, and carbon fuses to become silicon and nitrogen, and so on. Thus, elements other than hydrogen and helium have no origin other than the centers of stars. And stars not only manufacture the heavy elements, they also explode them into space.



Edited by Max - 16-Aug-2012 at 08:15
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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #7 Posted: 16-Aug-2012 at 13:31




The Material World

Nature invented a whole range of hi-tec materials long before we invented ceramics and plastics. And not only are they often better, but nature has also invented ingenious ways of building with them. In this programme we travel inside a giant sequoia to find out how nature has built the largest living thing ever, and how that might help us make better bullet-proof vests. In the forests of Central America, the breath-taking, irridescence of a morpho butterfly in flight is all the more amazing when slowed down over a hundred times. It has inspired one cosmetics company to invent an entirely new kind of lipstick – but more importantly, understanding its dazzling beauty might pave the way for a new revolution in information technology – photonic crystals – that would make fibre optic systems obsolete.

http://docuwiki.net/index.php?title=NatureTech


Edited by Max - 16-Jan-2013 at 18:22
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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #8 Posted: 21-Aug-2012 at 13:00

O-chem is the study of carbon compounds. Biology is the study of carbon compounds that crawl a smart man once told me when in doubt, say that further research needs to be conducted...





http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry
сеуште не им е пополнета секцијата за амините та еве компензација http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/aminemenu.html#top [1]
Amins

Amines and amides are abundant in nature. They are a major component of proteins and enzymes, nucleic acids, alkaloid drugs, etc. (Alkaloids are Ncontaining, weakly basic organic compounds; thousands of these substances are known.)
• Amines are organic derivatives of ammonia, NH3, in which one or more of the three H’s is replaced by a carbon group.
• Amines are classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°), or tertiary (3°), depending on how many carbon groups are connected to the nitrogen atom.
...
http://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/index_2353/Notes_Chapter_06.pdf

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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #9 Posted: 22-Aug-2012 at 22:16

Амини и Алеергии - Amines and food intolerance - http://fedup.com.au/factsheets/additive-and-natural-chemical-factsheets/amines [1][2]

но може и не е до толку - Мењајте навике у исхрани - http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/spektar/Medicina/t15706.sr.html




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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #10 Posted: 23-Aug-2012 at 10:01
има многу абер и за аминокиселини и ензими но би го завршил биохемискиов излет со витамини...

The word vitamin comes from the word "vitamine" which was coined by researchers in 1912 to describe this recently discovered class of substances. At that time they were thought to be all amines which were essential to life. But not all of the vitamin are amines, so the "e" at the end was dropped to retain the now common term for these nutritional supplements. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/vitamin.html [1]


...Funk postulated "that the substance facilitating growth found in milk is similar, if not identical, with the vitamines described by me." (Funk 1912a, p. 169).
...
However, Funk's ideas raised a lot of controversy and he spent the next ten years campaigning for support for this word he coined and its use as a scientific expression. In 1916 the term was gaining some acceptance as evidenced by this article from Science

The word "vitamine" has come into our vocabulary since the latest dictionaries were published. Etymologically it means an amine that is essential to life, and it was coined by C. Funk as a generic name for a group of substances, of unknown chemical composition, small quantities of which appear to be a necessary constituent of a wholesome human diet . . . An absence or insufficiency of vitamines in the diet brings on diseases now known as "avitaminoses" or "deficiency diseases,"
...
http://everything2.com/title/Vitamin




A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine," a combination word from vita and amine, meaning amine of life, because it was suggested that the organic micronutrient food factors which prevented beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases, might be chemical amines. This proved incorrect for the micronutrient class, and the word was shortened. Today, a chemical compound is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. Thus, the term is conditional both on the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animals, and biotin and vitamin D are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances. The term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids, nor does it encompass the large number of other nutrients that promote health but are otherwise required less often.
Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Thus, each "vitamin" refers to a number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of chemicals are grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic descriptor" title, such as "vitamin A", which includes the compounds retinal, retinol, and four known carotenoids. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well.

Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism (e.g. vitamin D), or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (e.g. some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E and sometimes vitamin C).[3] The largest number of vitamins (e.g. B complex vitamins) function as precursors for enzyme cofactors, that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: for example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. Alternately, vitamins may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes, detachable molecules which function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. For example, folic acid carries various forms of carbon group methyl, formyl and methylene - in the cell. Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' best-known function, the other vitamin functions are equally important.

Until the 1900s, vitamins were obtained solely through food intake, and changes in diet (which, for example, could occur during a particular growing season) can alter the types and amounts of vitamins ingested. Vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive pills for several decades, allowing supplementation of the dietary intake


Timing Your Vitamins - http://www.naturemade.com/resource-center/articles-and-videos/immune-health/timing-your-vitamins [1][2][3][4][5]

Vitamins and Dietary Supplements in Macedonia - http://www.euromonitor.com/vitamins-and-dietary-supplements-in-macedonia/report [1][2]

Multivitamins: Good idea or bad? - http://www.supplecity.com/articles/multivitamin.htm [1][2][3][4][5]



Edited by Max - 19-Sep-2015 at 23:09
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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #11 Posted: 02-Sep-2012 at 18:49

Wine Aging - [1][2][3][4][">5]

Using Magnets To Instantly Age Your Wine – Fact or Fiction? [1]

It has been generally thought for a long time that passing a conductive fluid through a properly designed magnetic field has an effect on the polar molecules in the fluid. Even wine connoisseurs and professional wine tasters are using magnets these days to realign wine molecules to smooth and mature the taste of a young wine...

I purchased this a couple of years ago and it does what it's suppose to do (age the wine)for a short time. I make my own wine and can't wait for it to age and now I can enjoy a bottle in 30 minutes after using this. Keep in mind that when you're done using this the wine will go back to it's earlier stage. [1]


http://www.thewineclip.com/cgi-bin/category.cgi?category=home


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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #12 Posted: 28-Sep-2012 at 15:01


ќуморосаната храна е апла канцерогена [1][2] но и пржената а незагорена храна е во иста мера отров особено поомфритот - Acrylamide is a known lethal neurotoxin and animal carcinogen. Its discovery in some cooked starchy foods in 2002 prompted concerns about the carcinogenicity of those foods. [1

единствена утеха со помали последици е вакумирано-пржење, за кое велат им е скапо на сендвичарите не па на домакинствата [1][2][3][4][5

With vacuum frying it is easier to maintain natural colors and flavours of the finished product. Due to the lower temperatures applied (approx. 100-130 °C (266 °F)), the formation of suspected carcinogen acrylamide is significantly lower than in standard atmospheric fryers, where the frying temperature is approx. 170 °C (338 °F). The fat absorption of the products is also reported to be lower than in atmospheric fryers.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_fryer

ако ова не ви направи reality check во петици, тогаш има дополнителни утехи за малио мозок [1]  иако најдобро е чоек да си вклучи природно големио  та дa го навикне на варени, динстани и опарени зарзавати, што би рекле индијанците тавата е сончева само кога е малку и правилно потпечена, што не може да се каже дека е случај со фритезиве - system's sciences and technologies using the energy from artificial sources deprive our bodies / minds / emotions of the true food needed to keep the system healthy and stable [2] а дури и при органски начин на исхрана повторно е потребно прочистување на организмот, плус-причина за да се зацврсти постењето во народот доколку тоа не го прави пред се од религиозни причини, како велат секоја диета има причина некому му е до телото а некому до душата, јасно најправилно е грижа и за двете со оглед дека телото е храм на душата, та средниот пат дури и за продуховените е неопходен, иако денес тоа е мисловна именка и за утврдените Христијани кои или немаат мерка  во постот или сметаат дека се што постои е дадено за наше добро па макар било препржено, пресолено или прекисело та неретко ги снајдува - Ти, међутим, ни о чему не размишљаш и не схваташ своју племенитост. Због тога духоносни Давид праведно оплакује твој пад, говорећи: Човек у части будући не разумеде, изједначи се са стоком неразумном и постаде јој сличан (Пс. 48; 21) [3]



Edited by Max - 28-Sep-2012 at 18:16
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  Quote Max Quote  Post ReplyReply #13 Posted: 01-Oct-2012 at 10:00


но да не се лажеме нема кој не се навлекол на фаст-фудои, дали преку кебапчилници и бурекџилници порано, дали преку генерација М на метропол, дали преку аркадија,стоилко,ким итн. всушност единствено пд сето тоа што беше позитивно беше патафритас кај млинбалкан само што не успејаа т.е. не го тераа процесот познат ко brand implanting иако за волја на вистината освен пицериите ко дал-фуфо ил плава лагуна, и претходно рекламите на метропол, незнам за локален фаст-фуд маркетинг се до доаѓањето на мјам-мекот, но понекогаш скромноста е доволна ако си на право место во право време што и не беше случај со патафритас, требаше ко специјалитет или специјализирана сендвичара да го истоварат кај стоилко или сега во чаршија... 

како и да е оние кои и понатаму не им е до манџи дали заради мрзливост, преокупираност или слинење, еве конечно утеха и за нив, односно за сите на кои холестеролот им крчка ко пудинг, новинава кратко би звучела налик - стем-клетки за реанимација срце пред и по срцев удар, а и воопшто за коронарни заболувања со оглед дека се оправаат оштетувањата настанати како последица на заболувањето или ударот!

Soon, a jab that can trick the heart into healing itself - http://www.business-standard.com/generalnews/news/soonjab-that-can-trickheart-into-healing-itself/60277/

 

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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #14 Posted: 24-Sep-2013 at 16:59


HaјсилнoтoOpужјe е вo caмитeHac cинaпoвo3pнo co НaдeжВepaЉубoв
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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #15 Posted: 03-Oct-2013 at 08:03

најверојатно брзо ќе го видиме и во малопродажба новиов материјал, идеален за еко-отстрануање нафта и деривати, а посекако корисен и за се што треба да се впие

- http://www.technofuture.ru/novosti-nauki/upsalit/

- http://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/6343/why-was-anhydrous-magnesium-carbonate-upsalite-discovered-so-late

- http://naked-science.ru/article/sci/22-07-2013-248
HaјсилнoтoOpужјe е вo caмитeHac cинaпoвo3pнo co НaдeжВepaЉубoв
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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #16 Posted: 27-Nov-2013 at 00:08

може повеќе е за биохемија муабетов, но пред се е органска хемија посреди а која се манипулира за подобри квалитети на дадените организми, технологија позната како ГМО (генетски модификувани организми), што од старт звучи еклектички за гранка на генетиката, а особено знаејки дека ко таква се развивала тро и необично во спрега со воениот развој односно најголем замав земала во времето на менгеле и пријателите иако на далеку порудиментиран начин него денес, заради што се перцепицира и ко дејност со голем потенцијал и можности колку и да се истите прикажани застрашувачки [1][2]

слободно можам да кажам дека и јас сум анти-гмо, но не заради страв од можни мутации на ова или она, туку заради предвремената еволуција која би се индуцирала преку ова, воопшто синергија во постојниот еко-систем, кој за волја на вистината и без тоа ќе колабира, иако таквиот колапс е исто ко и генетиката несреќен нус-ефект на индустриската револуција, нејсе кај и да не однесе муабетот нормално дека ќе има страв по истиот бидејки одејки наоколу и фрлајки шкорчиња а во исто време заобиколувајки и доста природни закони преку слободната волја посреди експериментирањето прашање е дали и како ке излезе тоа на убаво иако може да скубне и кон поубав див запад, коњи растрчани по сите страни и оловни поила посреди - http://geneticallyengineeredfoodnews.com/recommended-reading/mendel-in-the-kitchen [1][2][3]

ако е за утеха бар не штанцаме ние гмо-семе нит пак увезуваме, иако увозна гмо-храна ни товарат на кило, впрочем тек допрва ке се контролира увозот на готови производи во од, додека сега е оставен на случајна селекција http://www.build.mk/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=468&PID=159590#159590


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  Quote gjoko Quote  Post ReplyReply #17 Posted: 27-Nov-2013 at 00:56
Проблемот со ГМО е во изборот на човештвото-или ќе го профатат или третата светска војна ќе дојди сама по себе.Третото решение богатите да не се расфрлаат со храна е најмалку вероватно
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  Quote Dexter26 Quote  Post ReplyReply #18 Posted: 27-Nov-2013 at 01:32
Previous
 
Ако бидат соодветно одбележани генетички модифицираните производи од органско потекло, со соодветна декларација и со соодветни предупредувања за последиците од консумирање на истите тие производи за одредени луѓе со одредени здравствени состојби, кои можеби се алергични на состојките кои ги содржат истите тие генетички модифицирани производи од органско потекло, тогаш и генетички модифицираните производи од органско потекло се добредојдени.
 
Веќе имаме генетички модифицирани производи од неорганско потекло, како што се газираните пијалоци и слатките, но барем кај нив на амбалажата пишува што содржат, иако за волја на вистината, потрошувачите речиси ич не обрнуваат на содржината на производите кои ги консумираат, но за тоа тие самите си се виновни, не можат да кажат дека не биле информирани, туку можат да кажат дека не биле заинтересирани за да се информираат за содржината на истите тие производи и за потенцијалниот ризик и потенцијалните последици од нивно консумирање.
 
Но кога некој пласира генетички модифицирани производи од органско потекло на пазарот и од една страна тврди дека се исти, а можеби и поквалитетни од природните производи од органско потекло, а од друга страна одбива да открие во што е разликата поради некакви си самопрогласени и самоприсвоени таканаречени права на интелектуална сопственост, тогаш човештвото има проблем.
 
Автомобилите ја загадуваат околината. Денес човештвото е свесно за таквото загадување, а производителите на автомобилите се обврзани да објавуваат колкави количини на издувни гасови испуштаат автомобилите на извозен километар или на согорен литар гориво. Најчесто објавуваат лажни информации, но барем не го негираат фактот дека нивните возила ја загадуваат околината.
 
Од друга страна, производителите на генетички модифицирани семиња и на генетички модифицирани производи од органско потекло, негираат дека нивните производи можат да бидат штетни за одредени луѓе со одредени здравствени состојби, кои можеби се алергични на состојките кои ги содржат истите тие генетички модифицирани производи, а истовремено производителите на истите тие генетички модифицирани семиња и на истите тие генетички модифицирани производи од органско потекло, одбиваат да прифатат одбележување на нивните производи и објавување на нивните состојки.
 
Тоа не е во ред и мора да се регулира со закон и да стане обврска за секој производител на генетички модифицирани производи од органско потекло, како што веќе е регулирано со закон и веќе е обврска за генетички модифицираните производи од неорганско потекло.


Edited by Dexter26 - 27-Nov-2013 at 14:15
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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #19 Posted: 27-Nov-2013 at 16:00



Originally posted by gjoko

Проблемот со ГМО е во изборот на човештвото-или ќе го профатат или третата светска војна ќе дојди сама по себе.Третото решение богатите да не се расфрлаат со храна е најмалку вероватно

за сега има и други поводи за големата [1][2] иако храната и водата се основни покрај енергијата а посекако ќе спотераат и многу помали, она на Гапо филмо убаво ја претскажува ова исконска кавга околу изворот кој на крај виша сила им го поплавува со се' селата [1][2]


Originally posted by Dexter26

Ако бидат соодветно одбележани генетички модифицираните производи од органско потекло, со соодветна декларација и со соодветни предупредувања за последиците од консумирање на истите тие производи за одредени луѓе со одредени здравствени состојби, кои можеби се алергични на состојките кои ги содржат истите тие генетички модифицирани производи од органско потекло, тогаш и генетички модифицираните производи од органско потекло се добредојдени.

не само болните ами и здравите треба да се запрашаат колку нешто е прифатливо за нив,  та она што ќе биде решение за ГМО-то е негова демистификација и отварање на сите карти, па нека знае народ кој-што-како и зошто модификува, и не дека од тоа некој ке се просветли, ами бар ќе му се даде избор односно потикне волја или сам да си одгледува стари сорти на село, а зошто не и град колку за себе и своето семејство, или свесно ке се предаде на ГМО и премисата "како за сите така и за мене", сите сме одамна извозени само што тоа касно го контаме, а уште покасно и пробуваме да се вратиме на сончевиот колосек

http://www.novi-svjetski-poredak.com/2014/12/03/studija-potvrdila-dnk-iz-gmo-ulazi-u-krv-i-mijenja-covjekov-dnk/

Edited by +Protagorist - 19-Sep-2015 at 22:44
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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #20 Posted: 27-Nov-2013 at 17:14


купи ден продај е работава со оглед дека прилично релативно им е колку луѓе се или ќе бидат колатералка само за системот да се одржи или се трасира одржлив модел за истиот, јасно дека во сите тие сценарија ке се протуркуваат разно разни експерименти, но посекако еден од тие ке биде и ГМО покрај телевизијата и интернетот како масовни медиуми преку кои се потикнува и креира мислење а потоа и навика, впрочем по што чезнееме тоа и си го добиваме, сакавме футуризам - ето го - ни го сервираат под полна пареа, колку и истата некому споредно или локално да му смрди на загорено!

The genetically modified foods debate:

Demystifying the controversy through analytical chemistry

The genetic manipulation of foods, including plants and
animals, has been pursued for hundreds of years. It could be
argued that Gregor Mendel was already performing genetic
manipulation in the 19th century. As early as in 1885,
Mendel presented his first paper entitled “Experiments on
Plant Genetic Hybridization”, which he published in 1886
in the Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Brünn.
While Mendel’s work was then overlooked and even
criticized, it is now considered a cornerstone of modern
genetics and genetic manipulation. It was not until the early
20th century that Mendel’s work was taken seriously, and
his experiments reproduced and further expanded by an
array of notable geneticists and evolutionary biologists.
Arguably, so-called selective breeding is a result of
Mendel’s initial work. Selective breeding has been used to
create fruits of exotic taste, roses with specific colors and
fragrances, and chicken that lay eggs that are lower in
cholesterol content.

This technique is limited to endowing or enhancing one
particular species with a trait that is native to the same species.
There is no inter-species crossing, and, thus,
it is viewed by most as harmless genetic manipulation.

The advent of biotechnology allowed genetic modification
and “selective breeding” to become more precise genetic
manipulation through the introduction of specific genes that
were not indigenous to the species. New traits could be
introduced into already elite varieties to produce enhanced
properties. Inter-species crossing has enhanced traditional
crops by breeding of insect-resistant and increased nutri-
tional value corn and rice, respectively. Much controversy
has followed this species modification and subsequent
creation of genetically modified foods. Proponents of GM
foods highlight the potential humanitarian ramifications of
GM crops proliferation placing emphasis upon the in-
creased nutrition and heartiness of the crops, in relation to
combating malnutrition and world hunger. The proponents
of genetically modified foods engage in the advantages that
they provide with regard to nutrition and help in the fight to
end human malnutrition and hunger. The opponents, on the
contrary, cite the fact that allergies and inter-species gene
transfer may be hazardous to human health.
The GM foods debate is global, impacting all societies
regardless of their socioeconomic status. The potential
impact on the poor and in ending human hunger is
especially important and may outweigh some concerns
imposed by the detractors of these foods. Major concerns of
those who oppose genetically modified (GM) foods include
the risk of allergenicity in humans and the potential
negative environmental effects of modified crops. Although
GM foods are extensively tested for the risk of allergenicity,
cases of allergenicity—such as GM peas in mice—have
received much publicity. GM peas were never introduced to
the public sector, yet this case has been touted by
opponents of GM foods as a prime example of their
potential hazards to human health. Another issue that has
been widely publicized is the possible transfer of antibiotic
resistant genes from GM foods to the microflora housed in
human intestines. Evidently, if such a speculation were true,
the consequences of GM foods consumption could be
disastrous to human health. However, this inference is pure
speculation and no evidence of such gene transfer has ever
been recorded. There are studies that have looked at this
possibility, and concluded that—based on known mech-
anisms—it is unlikely that this scenario could occur, or,
furthermore, that it would have detrimental effects.

A valid argument made by GM foods opponents refers to the fact that
little is known about the long-term effects of GMcrops on the
environment, microorganisms, animals, and humans. For
example, will Darwinian evolution demonstrate that insects
can evolve to successfully combat the current insect-resistant
GMcrops? The answer to this question remains unknown. As
a precaution, non-GM crops are not grown near GMcrops. In
a similar vein, GM opponents are also concerned that these
crops could present a threat to biodiversity, with plant-
produced pesticides harming other organisms and crops, thus,
leading to a decreased variety of natural foods. The possibility
of gene transfer from GM crops to conventional crops grown
in the same locations can threaten food safety and contami-
nation.Moreover, an additional major concern is the spread of
herbicide-resistant genes to unintended weeds that would
create so-called ‘super-weed’ that will be difficult to control.

An economic concern arises from the great corporate
presence in GM food production. The dominance of these
multinational agrochemical corporations (i.e., Monsanto,
Syngenta, and DuPont–Pioneer) is an issue of concern to
activist groups such as Greenpeace for fear that farmers
growing GM crops will become dependent on these com-
panies. Even more activists oppose GM foods on philo-
sophical ideals as opposed to scientific or economic
principles. These groups argue that genetic tampering with
nature by mixing genes is unethical and a violation of the
intrinsic values of natural organisms. On another more
practical consumer-related note, a struggle that opponents
of GM foods bring up is the proper labeling of those GM
foods that reach the market.

следнава констатација е малку излитена, што мислат кој треба да реагира на гмо, може мајкл џексон, феномени, и професорката во видеото ист табиет, критично резонирање ко за забавиште

Opponents of GM foods include the aforementioned
special interest groups (e.g., Greenpeace, Friends of Earth,
and the Organic Consumers Association), and public figures,
including His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales; support-
ers of GM technology include many plant scientists, Nobel
Laureate Norman Borlaugh (the father of GM crops and a
leader in this scientific field), and notable individuals such as
former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, President Jimmy
Carter, and Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh.
While concerns regarding genetic modification exist,
GM crops offer a potentially tremendous benefit to society.
Agriculture is already becoming more efficient with the use
of GM technology, as it gives farmers more control over the
range of crops that can be produced in a cost-effective
manner. The use of insect-resistant crops reduces the use of
dangerous chemical pesticides, enabling both cost-effective
farming and reduction of the ill effects of pesticides on our
environment. The argument stressing that there is currently
enough food in the world to feed everyone is not valid
since, indeed, rising population growth is inducing a strain
on global food availability. This strain on food reserves is
made worse by population growth, which itself is steadily
increasing, with an estimated 2 billion more people
worldwide by the year 2050. GM crops provide immunity
to insect attack on stored grain, and eliminate the need for
expensive pesticides; these properties address some of the
major concerns of food shortages in poor countries. An
increase in food production due to GM crop proliferation
should make food cheaper according to the laws of supply
and demand. The potential advances made in GM crops
will allow production of food with unique benefits such as
food fortified with vitamins and nutrients, food with long
shelf-life, and perhaps even food that intrinsically produces
life-saving vaccines. Moreover, GM crops could be designed
to tolerate drought conditions, extreme temperatures, and/or
salinity conditions. Forthcoming technological advances
should allow for higher crop yields, foods of better quality,
and cheaper overall food production.

Clearly, the GM foods debate has no foreseeable resolu-
tion in the near future. There may not be an absolutely clear
or unilateral answer to this debate, but we, as analytical
chemists, can make a significant contribution to this
problem. There is no question that more methods to allow
rapid, sensitive, and accurate measurements of genetically
modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed are required,
and methods that can distinguish amongst different species
of GMOs.
Emphasis must be placed on adapting current
analytical methods and designing new ones capable of cost-
effective detection of transgenic DNA, and of newly
produced proteins. These methods should be able to per-
form analysis in untreated and processed food. An im-
portant concern that must be addressed is the ability to
detect unapproved GMOs that are accidentally released in
foods or feed. In many cases, the presence of these
organisms in foods can be minimal, but, nevertheless, they
should be detectable. Thus, a host of sampling strategies
directed to detecting the presence of GMOs in foods in a
sensitive, selective, and reliable manner should be devel-
oped and employed. In addition, we cannot neglect the
question of potential allergenicity of GM foods. To that
end, analytical chemists can contribute to easing the
concerns of consumers to GM foods by developing reliable
analytical methods for the rapid testing of possible
allergenicity. This is, indeed, an important area of research
that needs more attention. We should not forget that
proteins not known to be allergic in the species of origin
can become allergenic when transferred to a different
species, as observed in the aforementioned case of GM peas.
Therefore, scientists cannot assume that GM foods
are safe for human consumption just by merely following
the premise that target modified proteins are harmless to
other animals. The determination of allergenicity will
require the design of a battery of methods that are highly
selective and sensitive for the species that intends to
consume the target GM food. Validation of existing
commercial and research methods that have been used in
other applications and that can be adapted for GM food
detection is a critical area of analytical work that needs to
be emphasized. While the literature describing new assay
methods for GM foods is steadily increasing, the need for
accurate and selective quantitation of all approved and
newly developed GMOs in a variety of matrices is still
pending. A 2004 National Academies of Sciences report
also lists important areas for development (http://www.
nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309092094). Analytical
chemists are uniquely qualified to provide solutions to the
GM foods problem and, thus, have an opportunity to make
an impact in the future of society by demystifying some of
the fears and misconceptions the general public may have
toward GM foods.

In this special issue of Analytical and Bioanalytical
Chemistry, we have chosen to highlight advances in the field
of GM food analysis. Articles in this special issue focus on
the analytical and biochemical tools available. These
methods range from molecular methods, to PCR-based
detection, to more traditional immunoassay techniques.
One feature article describes the potential allergenicity
issues of GM food and the current regulations for testing of
allergenicity. Another gives an exciting overview of the field
of GM foods, and focuses on the on-going debate on the use
and consumption of these crops.
In 2003, The New York Times published an eloquent
piece describing the struggle that poor nations face when
trying to develop improved versions of local crops. There
are a handful of biotechnology companies that own the
patents and rights to the technologies needed to genetically
modify these crops and—by not sharing them with these
impoverished nations—are currently hindering local farm-
ers. This same article states “… the world shouldn’t ban
genetically modified food. It should develop a cassava root
resistant to the mealy bug and drought-proof corn. Anti-
globalization activists are right that corporate greed is the
problem. But they are wrong that genetically modified
crops should be banned. The real crime of genetic
modification is not its risks but that it is squandering its
promise, widening the gap between rich and poor.” We
concur with this statement and hope that this issue increases
the interest and appetite of analytical chemists in getting
involved in the development of new methods to help ensure
the safety of genetically modified foods. If so, our mission
as editors will be accomplished!


P.S. The GM foods debate is such an emotional one that
even rap songs have been released in support of this
technology. Our favorite pays tribute to Nobel Laureate
Norman Borlaug, and widely considered the father of the
Green Revolution. The lyrics of the rap song below are a clear
example of the far-reaching GM food debate, and highlights
the history and potential benefits of GM technology



 

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