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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #21 Posted: 10-Jan-2014 at 13:03

Light and Matter

Atoms are made of smaller particles - Protons, Neurtrons, and Electrons. Oxygen is a common element. In its most most abundant isotopic form (O-16), it has:

8 Protons 8 Neutrons 8 Electrons

But, how are these subatomic particles arranged in the oxygen atom? Are they just thrown in like marbles in a bag? Or is there a unique order in the atom? Does the atom have structure?

Many scientists contributed to understanding the structure of atoms. They performed experiments and proposed models. A model is a theory or picture. In the nuclear model, the atom is pictured as a huge empty ball with a tiny nucleus at its center. The nucleus holds protons and is positively charged. In this model, the electrons circulate somewhere around the nucleus.

Niels Bohr proposed a new model (the Solar System Model) of the atom based on observations of light! Bohr explained how atoms produce "light", and gave us our first picture of how electrons are arranged in the atom.

Many scientists at the beginning of the 20th century were puzzled by how matter could emit light.

If we pass Ne light through a prism, we see a well defined pattern of bright lines. This series of bright lines is called an emission spectrum. Each element produces a unique emission spectrum. Here is a picture showing the emission spectrum of 3 elements, Ne, Hg, and Na. Sodium (Na) produces two closely spaced yellow lines in its emission spectrum.

The emission spectrum of an element is unique much like a fingerprint. And just like a fingerprint is used to identify an individual, an emission spectrum can be used to identify an element. Spectroscopy, the technique for studying the emission spectrum of elements, can help us identify the soucre of paint at a crime scene, or the composition of a star lightyears from Earth!

But...what causes an element to emit this bright line spectrum of colors? Bohr gave us the answer.

Bohr agreed with Rutherford that the atom was mostly empty space, and that protons were located in the nucleus at the center of the atom. But, Bohr went a step further and suggested that electrons circulated around the nucleus in definite orbits at well defined distances from the nucleus - like planets orbiting the sun.

Bohr based his suggestions on his observations of the simplest element...Hydrogen. Hydrogen has an Atomic Number of 1, which means it has 1 proton in the nucleus, and 1 electron circulating around the nucleus.

Bohr believed that the electron in an un-heated hydrogen atom circled the nucleus in an orbit not far from the center of the atom. According to Bohr, when the hydrogen atom is heated, that electron absorbs energy and jumps to higher orbit. How far it jumps depends on how much energy it absorbs. Let's say it absorbs only enough energy to jump to the next higher orbit. Now, what happens when the hydrogen atom cools down? Bohr said upon cooling, the electron would fall back to a lower orbit. Well, since it gained energy in jumping to the higher orbit....it only makes sense that it has to lose that energy when it falls back to the lower orbit. The lost energy is given off as light, and not just any light, but light of a certain frequency or COLOR! In other words, the color of light given off depends on how far the electron falls. If it falls a short distance then the color is probably closer to the red (lower energy) end of the spectrum, but if the electron falls a great distance, then the color will be at the blue (higher energy) end of the spectrum.

http://www.m2c3.com/chemistry/VLI/M1_Topic2/M1_Topic2_print.html


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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #22 Posted: 10-Jan-2014 at 13:04


The photoelectric effect occurs when matter emits electrons upon exposure to electromagnetic radiation, such as photons of light (upon absorbing electromagnetic radiation, such as light). Here's a closer look at what the photoelectric effect is and how it works.

Photoelectric Effect and Non-metals - http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/phy05/phy05223.htm

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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #23 Posted: 10-Jun-2014 at 19:41
   
Soaps
Soaps are metals (lithium, calcium, sodium, potassium) salts of fatty acids.
Soaps are prepared by chemical treating of oils and fats by strong alkaline solutions.
A soap molecule is composed of a long non-polar hydrocarbon tale, which is hydrophobic (repelled by water) and the salt polar end, which is hydrophilic (water soluble).
The soap molecules attached to the substrate surface provide good adhesion of the soap lubricant and low coefficient of friction.
http://www.substech.com/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=solid_lubricants


Alkaline cleaning - http://www.substech.com/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=alkaline_cleaning [1]



Натриум - Sodium - [1] - http://science.yourdictionary.com/articles/some-interesting-facts-about-sodium.html

поважни соединенија - Сол(NaCl), Натриум нитрат(NaNO3), Боракс(Шалитра)(Na2B4O7·10H2O), но како нуспроизводи најкорисна појава се Каустична сода(NaOH)(жива сода - камена сода) која се користи за чистење од инудстрија па се до земјоделие [1][2] како и нејзината подостапна замена Сода бикарбона која исто е средство за чистење [1](NaHCO3)

Употреба:
1) Во одредени легури за да ја подобри нивната структура.
2) Во сапуните, во комбинација со масни киселини. Натриумовите сапуни се потврди (со повисока точка на топење) отколку калиумовите сапуни.
3) За да ја направи мазна површината на некој метал
4) За прочистување на стопени метали
5) Во лампите со натриумова пареа за производство на електрицитет, често користен и во уличните светилки.
6) Како топлоспроводен флуид во некои типови на нуклеарни реактори.
7) NaCl, како важен топлоспроводен материјал.
8) Во органската синтеза, натриумот се користи како редуцирачко средство.
9) Во хемијата, натриумот често се користи како слободен или со калиумот во легура NaK, како исушувач на суви растворувачи.

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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #24 Posted: 10-Jun-2014 at 20:09


во однос опции за ефективно а ефтино чистење, има уште една извикана неорганска материја кристал на Бор т.н. Боракс а кој се користи и во стакларската индустрија [1][2] а дури и хомеопатски го тимарат [3] но сепак Натриум Тетраборат - Боракс е отровен па и за животни [4] иако дозиран аптекарски служи ко антисептик и антимикотик најчесто скротувајки мувла [5

http://www.crunchybetty.com/getting-to-the-bottom-of-borax-is-it-safe-or-not



Hladnjak je mogući izvor raznih bakterija, stoga bi ga se trebalo isprazniti i očistiti barem jednom mjesečno. Želite li ekološki prihvatljivu varijantu sredstva za čišćenje, opet se poslužite svestranim boraksom i pažljivo isperite i osušite unutrašnjost.

I toaletnu školjku može se dovesti u blistavo bijelo stanje upotrebom antibakterijskog i ekološkog sredstva boraksa. Više nego pristojno posao će odraditi i tablete za čišćenje umjetnih zubala: stavite ih po četiri u školjku, ostavite sat vremena i isperite. Uvijek kada je ispirete, zaklopite dasku kako se zrakom ne bi proširile bakterije. [1]

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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #25 Posted: 11-Jun-2014 at 03:34

definitivno za muvla i kakvi i da e gabi boraksot e sigurno reshenie,isto korisno i za staklarnici, pa i od vinil [1]

http://blacktoxicmolds.com/borax-kill-mold.php

patem pretpostavuvam deka skrotuvanjeto na muvlata bara pretpazlivost no na oviedve videa videa pristapot e razlichen iako i vodvata sluchai se koristi zashtita, sepak vo prviovso medicinska maska tretiranjeto muvla deluva prilichno amaterski, najnapred bidejki toa se spori koi otkako kjese istretiraat i sotrat so boraksot trebai da se soberat sokrpaa shto poprilichno gi raznesuva vo vozduh a choek voblizina vednash gi vdishuva, makar bile i unishteni kapak so niv kje go vdishe vo odredena kolichina taka i boraksot, zatoa bi sovetuval pri tretiranje na muvla da se nosi shto e mozno pozatvorena zashtitna maska, pa i odelo ko vo vtoroto video



Does Borax Work For Removing Stubborn Mold?
There are many advantages to using borax to kill mold. For starters, borax is a natural cleaning product and although it is toxic if you swallow it, borax does not emit chemicals or dangerous fumes like some other mold killers. Borax, a white mineral powder, has a pH level of about 9 (baking soda is pH 8.1 and pH 7 is neutral) and a low toxicity.



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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #26 Posted: 04-Jul-2014 at 07:37

druga supstancija za izbeluvanje e hipermangan korisna i vo medicinata i vo industrijata i vo labosite
Služi kao jako oksidacijsko sredstvo pa se primjenjuje kao dezinficijens u kemiji, za obezbojivanje i bijeljenje (svile, pamuka, lana, slame, kože, kudjelje, ulja, voskova i masti,), pročišćavanje voda i onečišćena zraka, za uklanjanje različitih primjesa iz organskih otapala, pri proizvodnji stakla, kao tvar za dekontaminaciju prilikom izlaganja radioaktivnim tvarima (medicina - radiologija), važan je analitički reagens u laboratorijima pri kemijskoj analizi, u sanaciji kožnih bolesti (npr. dezinfekcija rana i dezinfekcija kod vodenih kozica), izbjeljivanju zubi, itd.. [1]




Edited by +Protagorist - 04-Jul-2014 at 07:38
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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #27 Posted: 11-Jul-2014 at 11:42
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  Quote +Protagorist Quote  Post ReplyReply #28 Posted: 23-Jul-2014 at 10:55


konechno najaktivna i brza suptancija za izbeluvanje i sterilizacija e Hidrogen Peroksid-ot (h2o2) iako e tersene za upotreba ko 35%-ten pa najdobro e da se odi so onoj shto go ima vekje po aptekite ko 3%-ten rastvor, samo barajte da vi go rastvoraat chist bez stabilizatori, iako chist e ponestabilen i treba da se vnimava kako se skladishti i chuva

jasno poznat ko blash kaj frizerkite no tie go dobivaat ko pasta, taka da ko takov prilichno e dopolnet odnosno zagaden so razna hemija

zaradi oksidativnata priroda se koristi vo medicinata kako sredstvo za dezinfekcija, isto gi sotruva i fungite, a voedno izbeluva se za mig osobeno teshki fleki itn., jasno korisen e i za dezinfekcija na voda od mikroorganizmi so ist efekt ko i hipermanganot

http://www.lenntech.com/processes/disinfection/chemical/disinfectants-hydrogen-peroxide.htm

sepak

H2O2 is a weak mirobiocide compared to chlorine, ozone, and other commonly used disinfectants. Consequently, it is not approved by regulatory agencies as a stand-alone disinfection treatment process.

Trusted sources recommend adding 1/8 c of Hydrogen Peroxide to 1 gallon of h20. This process eliminates many of the contaminants that can be found in untreated water. It is suggested that you let the purified water sit for at least 24 hours. Allowing treated, purified water to sit overnight is a common practice.
Using Hydrogen Peroxide to purify water has been shown to create a higher level of oxygen in water which in turn is healthier for the body. Hydrogen Peroxide has been known to be a cleansing agent for eleminating toxins in the body’s system. Added in small amounts to water, Hydrogen Peroxide’s benefits can be a healthy alternative to bleaching water for safe clean water.
Large water treatment plants use (H2O2) for treating sewage water in water treatment plants. Their usage of Hydrogen Peroxide leads however to complaints of noxious odors around these facilities.

http://survivalrecovery.wordpress.com/2012/07/10/using-hydrogen-peroxide-h2o2-to-purify-water/




101 Home Uses Of Hydrogen Peroxide - http://www.amazon.com/101-Home-Uses-Hydrogen-Peroxide

korisen e i vo gradinarstvo, no treba pretpazlivo, a posekako ne e isplatliv ko 3%-teten, sepak 30-35%tniot hidrogen e tezok da se nabavi, a vprochemna kraj i toj treba da se rastvori do 3%-toten kako ne bi gi izgorel bilkite...

http://www.build.mk/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=403&PID=165384#165384

http://www.organicagardensupply.com/disease-pests/using-h2o2-in-your-hydroponics-garden/




Edited by +Protagorist - 23-Jul-2014 at 11:21
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  Quote beTon Quote  Post ReplyReply #29 Posted: 29-Jun-2016 at 09:16

за недостапни места и со специфична намена за чистење го користат Хелиумот пример кај млазните мотори и сл. тренд кој се шири во сите области каде има скапа метална опрема која бара чистење [1][2][3]

но да речеме агенс сред специфични индустриски околности, бидејки иако во вселената го има во изобилство на земјата е редок гас, заради што и во од му бараат алтернатива [1] среќа Цепелините не станале атрактивен начин на транспорт [2][3] инаку и предвреме ќе сме ги сотреле резервите

~

но токму на време he резeрви во доволно количество и за наредни 50 години

2016

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-36651048

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/jun/28/huge-helium-gas-tanzania-east-africa-averts-medical-shortage

2014

http://www.decodedscience.org/helium-shortage-situation-update-one-year-later/42314

2012

heliumshortage everywhere - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-V_Rr6xSYao



од се наведено пропуштија дека се користи и за спектрометарска детекција на промаја кај моторите особено проверка на херметичност кај реактивните мотори (млазни и ракетни) но тук таму и кај останатите мотори со внатрешно согорување [1]

~

http://geology.com/articles/helium//url">

http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/197784-china-is-going-to-mine-the-moon-for-helium-3-fusion-fuel

http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Core/Inorganic_Chemistry/Chemistry_of_Helium

~

https://www.photonics.com/Articles/Helium_Up_Up_and_Away/a35225

Helium, especially highly purified versions, increasingly has been in demand globally for its usefulness in high-tech applications, such as in microchip and flat panel display manufacturing or as a coolant for magnets in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, particle accelerators and fiber optics manufacturing. It also is used to pressurize fuel tanks on space shuttles and to provide a nitrogen-free, oxygen-rich atmosphere for deep-sea divers hoping to avoid “the bends,” and as a protective gas for welding applications and growing silicon and germanium crystals.

This illustrates US helium consumption, by end use,in 2007. Units, which total 73.5, indicate million cubic meters.




Edited by beTon - 22-Sep-2019 at 22:57
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